This article is a filter guide for drinking water to help you choose the right filter for you. We answer questions about how to identify the water problem, what kind of water filtration technologies exist, what the different types of filters remove and how to choose the best filter for you.
What water problem do you want to solve?
Before selecting a water filter you need to figure out what problems you want to solve. Here are a couple of examples:
- Your water drinkable (potable) but tastes and smells poorly
- Concerned about or there is a risk of lead contamination
- Worried about specific contaminants such as micro plastics, nitrates, chlorine by-products, etc in your water
- The tap water is not drinkable and needs to be treated due to risk of e.g. bacteria (Legionella, E.coli) or viruses (enteroviruses)?
- You simply want to ensure that your water is safe to drink?
Generally public tap water in Europe and North America is safe to drink unless your local water provider tells you otherwise. However, this doesn't mean that it's clean or healthy. See the water quality report guideline
. Once you know what the problem you want to solve is then you can evaluate and choose the appropriate filter technology below.
There are different types of water filters depending on budget, preference, convenience and ease of installation/use:
Water pitchers – just fill it up with water and it filters it for instant use or place in the fridge to keep cool. E.g. PitcherPro by TAPP Water, Soma and Brita
Faucet filters – installs directly on your faucet and usually have a switch to turn filtering on and off. E.g. Tapp Water, Culligan and PUR
Water Bottle Filters - perfect solution if you need clan water on the go. Fill up the bottle with water from the tap or other sources depending on the filter and it will be filtered in the bottle before you drink. For example BottlePro or LARQ
Counter top filters – connects to your faucet or standalone to be filled and filters the water for drinking. E.g. Berkey and Propur
Under the counter filtration – filters the water specifically for the kitchen with replacement cycles typically every 3 to 12 months. E.g. Culligan and 3M
Whole house water filtration system – filters all incoming water in house for kitchen faucets, appliances, bathroom and shower. E.g. PureEffects, 3M, GE, Aquasana
Shower filters – covered in a separate section on this website
Within each of these types there are different technologies used and here’s a summary table with how each one works.
Drinking water filter guide overview and what they remove
|Carafe in the fridge
|To simply get rid of the chlorine the simplest method is to leave a carafe of unfiltered water in the fridge over night. Generally most of the chlorine evaporates in 12-24 hours.
|About 80-90% of the chlorine evaporates.
|Grannular activated carbon (GAC) or Carbon Blocks are made from raw organic materials (such as coconut shells or coal) that are high in carbon. Carbon is the most absorbent material known, and it is uniquely efficient because of thousands of tiny pores that can absorb. Some also use secondary media such as silver to prevent bacteria growth.
|Active carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, sediment, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), taste and odor from water. Remove most bacteria. High quality carbon blocks can also remove micro plastics, lead, nitrates and many other contaminants.
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
|Commonly referred to as RO, is a process where you demineralize or deionize water by pushing it under pressure through a semi-permeable Reverse Osmosis Membrane. RO filters are usually combined with an active carbon filter to trap organic chemicals and chlorine or CTA (cellulose tri-acetate) membrane prior to the RO membrane.
|Capable* of removing 99%+ of the dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organics, bacteria and pyrogens from the feed water (RO system should not be relied upon to remove 100% of bacteria and viruses).
* Capable = industrial grade RO systems
|UV Water Purification systems use special lamps that emit UV light of a particular wavelength that have the ability, based on their length, to disrupt the DNA of micro-organisms. As water passes through a UV water treatment system, living organisms in water are exposed to UV light which attacks the genetic code of the microorganism and rearranges the DNA /RNA, eliminating the microorganism’s ability to function and reproduce.
Normally UV filters are combined with another fitler such as active carbon.
|Remove 99.99 percent of bacteria and viruses that may be present in your tap water. See below for longer list.
|A home based system is very similar to those used in municipalities except on a far smaller scale. They are systems that include a recirculation pump, an ozone generator, a water recycling tank, and an ozone line vent. Ozone drinking water purifiers are generally located at the water intake point for the home between the intake and the storage tank. Ozone also uses UV light but in this case to create unstable oxygen molecules.
Ozone is often combined with activated carbon filtration to achieve a more complete water treatment.
|Ozone has been found to effectively remove 99 percent of all biological pathogens including Giardia and Cryptosporidium. It also is effective at removing iron and manganese as well as freeing up chlorine to kill even more microbes if used in a multiple step system.
|The ion exchange process percolates water through bead-like spherical resin materials (ion-exchange resins). Ions in the water are exchanged for other ions fixed to the beads. The two most common ion-exchange methods are softening and deionization. Deionization is generally used in combination with active carbon filters. Softening is primarily used before RO filters.
|Primary use is to soften the water and to reduce contaminets. Generally used in combination with a active carbon or a RO filter. Also frequently marketed as making the water alkaline (pH level above 7) and thus healthier for the body.
|Water is first heated to boiling. Then the water vapor rises to a condenser where cooling water lowers the temperature so the vapor is condensed, collected and stored. Most contaminants stay behind in the liquid phase vessel.
|Removes most contaiminats. Destillation is mostly used in industrial processes.
|Not really a filter system but as it’s used by many people as a last resort it’s included.
|Removes bacteria and viruses
Pros and cons of each of the filter technologies?
Keep reading our filter guide.
|Easy to install and replace filters (with the faucet and carafe models)Sufficient for most common water issues in developed countries
No waste of water
Leaves minerals and salt in the water
Cost as little as €60 per year (e.g. Tapp Water)
|Doesn’t remove all contaminants such as bacteria and viruses.
The best filters remove 90% or more of the chlorine but may still leave some poor taste.
Doesn’t reduce hardness or remove calcium (resulting in limescale)*
* Note: Active carbon filters with Ion Exchange may also remove calcium/limescale
|Reverse Osmosis (RO)
|Output is very clean water and can be used to make undrinkable water potable (drinkable)
Filter replacement approximately every 2-12 months (differs by brand and utilization)
|Waste as much as 2-6x the water output
Remove many of the desirable minerals from the water
Expensive and difficult to install and maintain versus caraffe and faucet filters (requires a professional)
|Very effective in removing bacteria and viruses
Reliable and cost effiecient – only lamp & sleeve replaced annuallyClean – no dirty parts to dispose of
|Cannot be used on it’s own in most casesDoes not remove any other contaminants from water such as heavy metals, salts, chlorine or man-made substances like petroleum products or pharmaceuticals.UV light is only able to work if water is clear. If the water is murky or contains “floaties,” a pre-filter should be used; UV light cannot effectively reach microorganisms because the rays are blocked by the other particles.
|Primarily a disinfectant that effectively kills biological contaminants.Oxidizes and precipitates iron, sulfur, and manganese so they can be filtered out.Will oxidize and break down many organic chemicals including many that cause odor and taste problems.
|More expensive than the other technologiesUnstable oxygen (i.e., ozone) acts as an oxidant in the body and may contribute to cellular damage, aging, diseases, etc.
|Great for reducing water hardness and for filtration of certain difficult substances such as nitrates and heavy metals
No wasted water and no electricity needed
Fast flow rate
Ideal for whole house filters
|Must be used in combination with other filters such as activated carbon
Does not effectively remove particles, pyrogens or bacteria
High operating cost over time
There is no scientific proof that alkaline water is better for the health
|Removes a broad range of contaminantsReusable
|Does not remove bad taste/odor
Consumes large amounts of energy
System usually takes a large space on counter
Does not contain any minerals or salt afterwards
May not remove pesticides and herbicides
|Doesn’t require any equipment
Vastly reduces risk of getting ill from short term consumption of water
|Does not remove a lot of contaminents like metals
Very expensive and time consuming method for high volumes of water
So which water filter should you choose?
An Active Carbon Faucet filter, under-the-sink filter, Destillation, UV, RO or no filter at all?
In most cases it’s sufficient with an active carbon filter such as EcoPro
or EcoPro Compact
by TAPP Water to remove odor, bad taste and contaminants. However, if your water report indicates specific issues with your water or if you have other concerns such as pH level, calcium or specific bacteria/viruses then pick the filter that is fit for purpose.
Hopefully this drinking water filter guide will help you on the way to choosing the right filter for you.
WHO, EPA, EU, Water Institute of Barcelona, Water institute of Granada, Water University in Stockholm, Water Benefits & Health